Area: 2,098.7 sq. km
Population: 6,105.8 thousand habitants (2006)
Administrative divisions:
- Districts: District 1, District 2, District 3, District 4, District 5, District 6, District 7, District 8, District 9, District 10, District 11, District 12, Tan Binh, Binh Thanh, Phu Nhuan, Thu Duc, Go Vap, Binh Tan,Tan Phu.
- Rural districts: Nha Be, Can Gio, Hoc Mon, Cu Chi, Binh Chanh.
Ethnic groups: Viet (Kinh), Hoa, Khmer, Cham...

 

 
   

 

   

Geography (Click here to see location)
In the core of the Mekong Delta, Ho Chi Minh City, formerly known as Saigon, is second the most important in Vietnam after Hanoi. It is not only a commercial center but also a scientific, technological, industrial and tourist center. The city is bathed by many rivers, arroyos and canals, the biggest river being the Saigon River. The Port of Saigon, established in 1862, is accessible to ships weighing up to 30,000 tons, a rare advantage for an inland river port.
Climate
The climate is generally hot and humid. There are two distinctive seasons: the rainy season, from May to November, and the dry season, from December to April. The annual average temperature is 27ºC. The hottest month is April and the lowest is December. It is warm all year.

History
Many centuries ago, Saigon was already a busy commercial center. Merchants from China, Japan and many European countries would sail upstream the Saigon River to reach the islet of Pho, a trading center. In the year of 1874, Cho Lon merged with Saigon, forming the largest city in the Indochina. It had been many times celebrated as the Pearl of the Far East. After the reunification of the country, the 6th National Assembly in its meeting of the 2nd of July, 1976, has officially rebaptized Saigon, Ho Chi Minh City. The history of city relates closely with the struggle for the independence and freedom of Vietnam.


Tourism
Today, Ho Chi Minh City is the big tourism center in Vietnam, attracting a large of visitors to Vietnam. Ho Chi Minh City has various attractions as Ho Chi Minh Museum, formerly known as Dragon House Wharf, Cu Chi Tunnels, system of museums, theatres, cultural houses... Recently, many tourist areas are invested such as Thanh Da, Binh Quoi Village, Dam Sen Park, Saigon Water Park, Suoi Tien, Ky Hoa..., which draw numerous tourists.
Despite its quite recent past, Ho Chi Minh City nevertheless possesses various beautiful buildings, displaying a characteristic combination of Vietnamese, Chinese and European cultures. These include Nha Rong (Dragon House Wharf), Quoc To Temple (National Ancestors Temple), Xa Tay (Municipal Office), Ho Chi Minh Municipal Theatre as well as many pagodas and churches (Vinh Nghiem, Giac Vien, Giac Lam, Phung Son pagodas...). After more than 300 years of development, Ho Chi Minh City presents many ancient architectural constructions, famous vestiges and renowned sights. It is remarkable for its harmonious blending of traditional national values with northern and western cultural features.
 

List of Famous Tourist Sites

Duc Ba (Notre Dame) Cathedral

Giac Lam Pagoda

Giac Vien Pagoda

Ho CHi Minh City Fine-Art Museum

Ho Chi Minh Municipal Theatre

Ho Chi Minh Museum

Nam Bo Women's Museum

Ben Thanh Market

Cho Lon Market

Zoo and Botanical Garden

Ben Duoc Monument

Cu Chi Tunnels

Can Gio - A biosphere Resever of The World

Vam Sat Tourist Site

Betel Hamlets

Binh Quoi Tourist Village

Suoi Tien Tourist Area

Van Thanh Park

Dam Sen Cultural Park

Dam Sen Water Park

Vietnam Golf and Country Club


Transportation
Ho Chi Minh City is the main junction for trains, roads, water, and air transportation systems for domestic trips and for foreign destination.
- Roads: Ho Chi Minh City is 1,730km from Hanoi, 99km from Tay Ninh, 30km from Bien Hoa (Dong Nai), 70km from My Tho, 125km from Vung Tau, 168km from Can Tho, 308km from Dalat, and 375km from Buon Ma Thuot. The City has National Highway 13 which connects Vietnam with the rest of Indochina.
- Train: Thong Nhat express train connects Ho Chi Minh City and Hanoi, vie many provinces in Vietnam.
- Air: Tan Son Nhat International Airport, 7km from center of city, is the biggest airport with many domestic and international routes. There are flights from Hanoi and Danang to Ho Chi Minh City and between ?the City to many regions as well a lot of countries on over the world.

 

 

   

 

   
 

 

Duc Ba Cathedral

Location: Duc Ba Cathedral is located on Han Thuyen Street, facing down Dong Khoi Street, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Characteristic: The resplendent Governor's Palace, completed in 1875, symbolized the regime's political power in Asia. And five years later, the Duc Ba (Our Lady's) Cathedral was inaugurated, and became the spiritual and cultural crucible of the French presence in the Orient.

 

 
   

 

   

 

After the first French colonizing force arrived in Vietnam in the mid - 19thcentury, it took only 21 years before the country had a cathedral to match the hulking Gothic edifices of France itself. The cathedral is supposed to represent the glory of the French Empire. Yet, as is always the case with colonization, this attempt to import French traditions into Vietnam transformed the colonizers' culture in the process. Even though the cathedral is built in a Western architectural style, it has a uniquely Eastern aspect.
Several architects put forward design proposals for the cathedral, but in 1877 the authorities selected Mr Bourard, who was famed for his religious architecture. He envisaged, and executed, a basilica-like structure with a square plan. The cathedral is composed of two main central bays with two sidereal corridors, with tall pillars and light coming in through sets of high windows, and a semi-circular shrine. The style follows a Roman pattern, although the outside contains some modifications: the cathedral's vaults are Gothic, and a modern steel skeleton supports the whole building.
In 1894 a pointed minaret was added to the bell tower, at the behest of an architect named Gardes, who was also responsible for the Xa Tay Palace, the building that now houses the Municipal People's Committee. The cathedral is a much smaller than those in France, but it was the largest in the French empire. The interior is very large: the p
rincipal shrine and two additional bays are 93m long, and reach 35m in width at one point. The semi-circular shrine at the rear seats a choir during services, and there are five chapels.
The walls are made of Bien Hoa granite, combined with red tiles from Marseilles, all without coating. Red tiles from France were also used on the roofs, but they were later replaced with tiles of equal quality from Phu Huu. Natural light streams in through stained-glass windows which were made by the Lorin Company from the French town of Sartre.
The whole building is well-ventilated thanks to a system of air-holes placed above and under the windows. The belfry is 57m high. For a long time it was the highest structure in the city centre, and was the first thing an arriving traveller would see when approaching the city by boat. Six bells weigh a combined 25,850kg. In 1885, the floor was taken apart and new pillars were added, because the original foundation could not bear the cathedral's weight. Stepping inside the cathedral, tourists see a line of Chinese characters eulogizing the Jesus' mother, "the innocent and unblemished Virgin Mother", and stained-glass portraits of Vietnamese believers amid Asiatic plants. On the square in front of the cathedral, there is a statue of the Virgin Mother made of white marble, symbolizing peace. All told, it's an unusual building: a Western architectural and religious style that has been transplanted into, and adapted to, the East. The colonizers were trying to impose French beliefs and customs onto Vietnam but once that culture arrived on Asia's shores, it took on a life of its own. The cathedral is seen as a unique synthesis, adding an unmistakable Oriental flavour to an ancient Occidental recipe.

 

   

 

   
 

 

Giac Lam Pagoda

Location: Giac Lam Pagoda is located at 118 Lac Long Quan Street, Tan Binh District, Ho Chi Minh City.
Characteristic: It is one of the city’s oldest pagodas with many Buddha statues made of brass and precious timber.

 

 
   

 

   

 

 

Giac Lam Pagoda (also known as the Cam Son or Cam Dien Pagoda) was built in 1744, under the reign of Lord Nguyen Phuc Khoat. Unlike many other local religious structures, it has not been renovated since 1900; the architecture, layout, and ornamentation remain almost unaltered. The scenery around the pagoda is picturesque and many people come here to write or recite poetry.
Standing in the front garden is a shining white statue of the Goddess of Mercy, perched upon a lotus blossom, a symbol of purity. Inside, on either side of the main altar, are statues of Ameda Buddha and Sakyamuni Buddha, along with more representations of the Goddess of Mercy. Giac Lam Pagoda is open from 6 am to 9 pm.

 

 

 

         
   

Giac Vien Pagoda

Location: Giac Vien Pagoda is located on Lac Long Quan Street, District 11, Ho Chi Minh City.
Characteristic: It has the ancient architecture of the pagodas built in the Nguyen Dynasty of the 19th century, and typical characteristics of the southern area in terms of the architecture, design and arrangement of the worshipping shrines.

   
         

In 1798, a monk who was in charge of taking care of the restoration of Giac Lam Pagoda, built a small pavilion for his daily prayers, called Quan Am Cac (Kwan Yin Pavilion). In the third year under king Tu Duc's reign (1850), the pavilion was rebuilt and named Giac Vien Pagoda. When building Dam Sen Tourist Park, the Management Board decided to preserve Giac Vien Pagoda intact and incorporate it into the park, making the park more attractive due to its cultural-historical value.
Giac Vien Pagoda has typical features, of southern Vietnam. The main shrine, also a big hall, is 360m2 in area, and used to worship Buddha. To its east and west, there are corridors, a room for the monks to prepare clothing before assisting the Superior Monk, and a large and spacious compartment at the rear. Along the corridors, there are small altars with worshipping items. In particular, there are rows of wooden pillars engraved with parallel sentences. The letters are carved delicately and painted with red lacquer and trimmed with gold. Around them there are decorative designs of leaves and climbing plants. All 153 statues in the pagoda are made of jack wood. The faces and postures of the statues look honest and they are placed low, creating a close feeling between them and the viewers.
The most attractive items are 60 plates, which are engraved on both sides made of jack wood. They are made with gold. The most beautiful plate is engraved with 18 fat, honest and smiling Arhats, with each riding on the back of a buffalo, a cow, a pig, a goat... Some plates are engraved with birds, ducks, fish ... but all looking alive. Other plates are carved with fruits popular in the South, such as coconut, mangos teen, durian, rambutan. These wooden engravings are the only ones that have been kept intact in Vietnam.
The Buddhist spirit of the ancient Viet people, during their migration south, accepted different religious tendencies and sects, on condition that they were useful to society. This is clearly seen through the items preserved at Giac Vien Pagoda. For this reason, Giac Vien Pagoda became a centre for worshipping ceremonies and discussions on Buddhism of the six southern provinces in the 19th century- a prosperous time for buddhist followers and talents whose works remain valuable until today.
Giac Vien Pagoda has been classified by the State as a cultural relic and a mini-museum of wooden engravings of historical and artistic value. For this reason, it attracts a lot of researchers and visitors all year round.


 

         
   

Ho Chi Minh City Fine Arts Museum

Location: Ho Chi Minh City Fine Arts Museum is located on 97A Pho Duc Chinh Street, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.

   
         

The Ho Chi Minh City Fine Arts Museum was set up as the result of a decision made by the City's People's Committee in September 1987, but it was not officially opened until 1991.
On the first and second floors, there are exhibits of works by Vietnamese and foreign artists. On the third floor are rooms with displays of works from between the 7th and early 20th century, including Champa and Oc Eo art work, Vietnamese antiques (ceramics, red-lacquered and gilded products, mother-of-pearl inlaid wood, etc.), traditional handicrafts of the Vietnamese ethnic groups and Western art.

 

 

         
   

Ho Chi Minh Municipal Theatre

Location: Ho Chi Minh Municipal Theatre is located on Dong Khoi Street, Ho Chi Minh City, between the Caravelle and Continental Hotels.
Characteristics: With a rotating stage and a 800 - seat hall, the theatre meets the required standards for various artistic forms such as singing, music, dancing and traditional and modern dramas.

   
         

Built at the beginning of 1897, under an original architectural design by French architect Ferret Eugene, who won a prize for theatre designing in July 1895, the Municipal Theatre was restored and renewed to celebrate the 300th anniversary of the foundation of Saigon (1698-1998).
The architectural style and staple material of the Municipal Theatre of the old days are reflected in its stone veranda, a pair of white stone statues of pretty girls at the gate, the colourful granite tiled floors, the chandeliers, the bronze statues in front of the stairs, the audience's hall with its arch engraved with decorative designs and rows of statues on the two sides of the theatre.
In the years of the Second World War, France was involved in many battles. In Vietnam the revolutionary high tide shook the colonial regime. The Municipal Theatre was closed and deserted. During the French re-invasion of the South after 1945, the Theatre was restored. When the French invaders withdrew from the South under the Geneva Agreement in 1956, the Ngo Dinh Diem regime turned the theatre into the headquarters of the lower House, therefore the inside and outside structure of the theatre was changed considerably.
Regaining the power after the Spring 1975 Great Victory, the City authorities allowed a temporary repair of the theatre, returning its function to a central theatre. In 1995, a hundred years after the start of the initial building project, a restoration project was approved by the Municipal People's Committee. Many experienced historians and architects were invited to participate in this project. The theatre was renewed with new materials and equipped with state-of-the-art electric appliances, light and sound systems and fire and safety equipment. With a rotating stage and a 800 - seat hall, the theatre meets the required standards for various artistic forms such as singing, music, dancing and traditional and modern dramas. It is a good place for artistic performances by domestic and foreign art ensembles and well - known artists, who visit Ho Chi Minh City.


 

         
   

Ho Chi Minh Museum

Location: Ho Chi Minh Museum is located on Nguyen Tat Thanh Street, District 4, Ho Chi Minh City.
Characteristic: This museum mostly contains pictures and objects relating to President Ho Chi Minh

   
         


The Dragon House Wharf, originally called Nha Rong, is located at the junction of the Ben Nghe Channel and the Saigon River. It was built in 1863 and served as the office of a French shipping company. From there, Nguyen Tat Thanh, later President Ho Chi Minh, set sail on a French ship named Admiral Latouche Treville in June 1911.
In September 1979, the People's Committee of Ho Chi Minh City chose Nha Rong as the Ho Chi Minh Museum - Dragon House Wharf. The name was taken from the two dragon-shaped symbols on the top of the building. Over time, approximately ten million people, local as well as foreign, have visited the Ho Chi Minh Museum. In addition, events such as artistic festivals and the introduction of new members into the Youth Union and Communist Party have been held in this museum.
 

 

 

         
   

Nam Bo Women's Museum

Location: Nam Bo Women's Museum is located on No.202 Vo Thi Sau Street, District 3, Ho Chi Minh City.
Characteristic: The Nam Bo Women's Museum is opened in 1985 as a center for educational and cultural activities, traditional meetings, scientific seminars and cultural exchanges for women.

   
         

This building once belonged to Nguyen Ngoc Loan, Director of the General Police Department under the former Saigon government. In 1984, it was turned into the Traditional House of Nam Bo Women. Later, another four-storey building was added and the whole complex became the Nam Bo Women's Museum.
The 2,000m2 display areas of the museum is divided into 10 rooms, each showing the tradition of national construction and defense of Nam Bo Women. A 500-seat meeting hall, a movie theatre, a library and a boutique are also included in the complex. The museum aims to preserve and highlight the fine traditions of women.

 

 

 

 

         
   

Ben Thanh Market

Location: Ben Thanh Market is situated at the intersection of Le Loi Avenue, Ham Nghi Avenue, Tran Hung Dao Avenue and Le Lai Street, 700m south-west of the Rex Hotel.
Characteristics: At first, the market was situated near the Ben Nghe River Dike. After being moved many times, it is now standing in the centre of the city where consumers can conveniently find all sorts of products
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According to Vuong Hong Sen, author of "the book Saigon of the Past", in 1912, the French filled a pond, the Boresse, into a solid foundation of 12,000m2 and built a market on it. The market was close to a landing stage (Ben) of the old city (Thanh), hence its name of Ben Thanh. The opening ceremony for the market in March 1914 was a big festive event.
At present, the front of Ben Thanh Market faces Quach Thi Trang Square; its rear faces Le Thanh Ton Street; its right, Phan Chu Trinh Street and its left, Phan Boi Chau Street. At all of its four sides, there are bustling trading shops.
Located at the centre of the city, Ben Thanh Market is always loaded with varieties of goods, such as consumer goods, cakes and candies, food and foodstuff, and particularly high-quality fruit and vegetables. Goods are displayed in a very attractive way that always catches the eyes of the buyers. They meet all requirements for the customers' daily life or for their families. The market has four gates that are very convenient for the market-goers. For all of its advantages, Ben Thanh Market is one of the most attractive tourist sites in the city for both domestic and foreign visitors.

 

         
   

Cho Lon (Lon Market)

Location: Cho Lon is located at Tran Hung Dao Street, District 5, Ho Chi Minh City.

   
         


In 1788, a group of Chinese from Pho and My Tho Islands came to Ben Nghe River Dike and founded a market which developed into the existent Cholon Market, offering a wide array of products. This is Vietnam's Chinatown market. It is an attractive site for visitors to observe that lively atmosphere.

 

 

 

         
   

Zoo and Botanical Garden

Location Ho Chi Minh City Zoo and Botanical Garden is located on No.2 Nguyen Binh Khiem Street, District 1, Ho Chi Minh City.
Characteristic: Ho Chi Minh City Zoo and Botanical Gardens was founded by JB Louis Pierre, a famous French botanist

   
         

Saigoneses like to call the Garden So thu. In Vietnamese it means "the zoological park". Its official name however is the Thao Cam Vien. In Vietnamese "Thao" means "plants and trees" and "Thu" means "animals": indicating that the garden has both plants and animals.
Construction of the garden started in March 1864 and it was opened in May 1865 on a 20ha area. Originally the garden was solely concerned with the growing of some imported industrial plants such as cacao, coffee, vanilla and rubber, as well as collecting exotic animals and birds from tropical Vietnam for zoos in France. The press praised the garden as one of the most beautiful parks in the Far East, second only to the Zoological and Botanical Garden in Singapore.
However, from 1942 to 1954, the Japanese and French armies in turn used Thao Cam Vien as their barracks. During these twelve years the cages were damaged and many animals and birds died from lack of care. At this time also, many established old trees were cut down.
Following the Geneva Peace Agreement, the City restored the Thao Cam Vien. For the past twenty years after the country's re-unification in 1975, the garden has expanded its co-operation with many countries and organisations in the world. It has joined the Southeast Asian Zoological Parks Association, it has regular contacts with the Leipzig and Rostock zoos in Germany, it co-operates with the World Wildlife Fund.
Through exchange programmes, Vietnamese can now see, for the first time, exotic animals and birds, which they could previously only see in films or books. The garden's staffs spend a lot of time and effort studying their animals and plants. They also make field trips to collect new plants and animals.
The Park forms a green space in the middle of the city. After the main entrance, visitors will find themselves walking between two lines of tall nhac ngua trees. On their left is the History Museum. On their right is the Temple of the Kings Hung, founders of the Vietnamese nation. In the green houses orchids, cacti and bonsai release their fragrances and show their beautiful colours. After visiting the bird and animal cages, the visitors can stop and relax by the lake to enjoy the scene of lotuses, water lilies, schools of carps, anabases and pikes. This is a real blessing in the middle of a busy urban centre.


 

         
   

Ben Duoc Monument

Location: Ben Duoc Monument was built in Cu Chi District, about 70km from Ho Chi Minh City centre.
Characteristic: The Ben Duoc Monument to the War Martyrs is a harmonious architectural complex. The monument was built according to the design of a traditional Vietnamese temple
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The monument is dedicated to the war martyrs from 40 cities and provinces, who laid down their lives on the battle fields in Saigon - Cho Lon - Gia Dinh during the anti-French and US resistance wars for national independence and freedom.
It has a three-entrance gate. In the main shrine are worshipped 44,357 martyrs and heroic mothers whose name are carved on marble plates and gilded with gold. On the ground floor, a mini-mock up, pictures, and many other show pieces about the hard life and battles of the army men and local people during the wars are displayed. There is also a nine-storey tower, 39m high, surrounded with gardens with flowers that blossom all the year round and with diverse kinds of ornamental plants.
Since its establishment in 1995 the monument has welcomed thousands of visitors, both domestic and foreign, especially on Martyrs' Day - July 27th - who come to enjoy the local scenery and show their respect to the national heroes.


 

         
   

Cu Chi Tunnels

Location: Cu Chi Tunnels are located approximately 70km northwest of Ho Chi Minh City centre in Cu Chi Rural District.
Characteristic: Cu Chi Tunnels consist of more than 200km of underground tunnels. This main axis system has many branches connecting to underground hideouts, shelters, and entrances to other tunnels.

   
         

Cu Chi District is known nationwide as the base where the Vietnamese mounted their operations of the Tet Offensive in 1968.The tunnels are between 0.5 to 1m wide, just enough space for a person to walk along by bending or dragging. However, parts of the tunnels have been modified to accommodate visitors. The upper soil layer is between 3 to 4m thick and can support the weight of a 50-ton tank and the damage of light cannons and bombs. The underground network provided sleeping quarters, meeting rooms, hospitals, and other social rooms. Visiting the Cu Chi Tunnels provides a better understanding of the prolonged resistance war of the Vietnamese people and also of the persistent and clever character of the Vietnamese nation.
For a place that's physically invisible, the Cu Chi Tunnels have sure carved themselves a celebrated niche in the history of guerilla warfare. Its celebrated and unseen geography straddles "all of it underground" something which the Americans eventually found as much to their embarrassment as to their detriment. They were dug, before the American War, in the late 1940s, as a peasant-army response to a more mobile and ruthless French occupation. The plan was simple: take the resistance briefly to the enemy and then, literally, vanish.
First the French, then the Americans were baffled as to where they melted to, presuming, that it was somewhere under cover of the night in the Cuu Long (Mekong) Delta. But the answer lay in the sprawling city under their feet - miles and miles of tunnels. In the gap between French occupation and the arrival of the Americans the tunnels fell largely into disrepair, but the area's thick natural earth kept them intact and maintained by nature. In turn it became not just a place of hasty retreat or of refuge, but, in the words of one military historian, "an underground land of steel, Home to the depth of hatred and the incommutability of the people." It became, against the Americans and under their noses, a resistance base and the headquarters of the southern Vietnam Liberation Forces. The linked threat from the Viet Cong - the armed forces of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam - against the southern city forced the unwitting Americans to select Cu Chi as the best site for a massive supply base - smack on top of the then 25-year old tunnel network. Even sporadic and American's grudgingly had to later admit, daring attacks on the new base, failed for months to indic
ate where the attackers were coming from and, importantly, where they were retreating to. It was only when captives and defectors talked that it became slightly more clear.
But still the entries, exits, and even the sheer scale of the tunnels weren't even guessed at. Chemicals, smoke-outs, razing by fire, and bulldozing of whole areas, pinpointed only a few of the well-hidden tunnels and their entrances. The emergence of the Tunnel Rats, a detachment of southern Vietnamese working with Americans small enough to fit in the tunnels, could only guess at the sheer scale of Cu Chi. By the time peace had come, little of the complex, and its infrastructure of schools, dormitories, hospitals, and miles of tunnels, had been uncovered. Now, in peace, only some of it is uncovered as a much-visited part of the southern tourist trail. Many of the tunnels are expanded replicas, to avoid any claustrophobia they would induce in tourists. The wells that provided the vital drinking water are still active, producing clear and clean water to the three-tiered system of tunnels that sustained life. A detailed map is almost impossible, for security reasons if nothing else: an innate sense of direction guided the tunnellers and those who lived in them.
Some routes linked to local rivers, including the Saigon River, their top soil firm enough to take construction and the movement of heavy machinery by American tanks, the middle tier from mortar attacks, and the lower, 8-10m down was impregnable. A series of hidden, and sometimes booby-trapped, doors connected the routes, down through a system of narrow, often unlit and invented tunnels. At one point American troops brought in a well-trained squad of 3000 sniffer dogs, but the German Shepherds were too bulky to navigate the courses. One legend has it that the dogs were deterred by Vietnamese using American soap to throw them off their scent, but more usually pepper and chilly spray was laid at entrances, often hidden in mounds disguised as molehills, to throw them off. But the Americans were never passive about the tunnels, despite being unaware of their sheer complexity. Large-scale raiding operations used tanks, artillery and air raids, water was pumped through known tunnels, and engineers laid toxic gas. But one American commander's report at the time said: "It's impossible to destroy the tunnels because they are too deep and extremely tortuous."
Today the halls that showed propagandas films, housed educational meetings and schooled Vietnamese in warfare are largely intact. So too are the kitchens where visitors can dine on steamed manioc, pressed rice with sesame and salt, a popular meal during the war, as they are assailed with true stories of how life went on as near-normal, much of the time. Ancestors were worshipped there, teaching was well-timetabled, poultry was raised and even couples trusted, fell in love, were wed, and honeymooned there. But visitors have it easier: those re-constructed tunnels give the flavour of the tunnels but not the claustrophobia and the sacrifice of the estimated 18,000 who served their silent and unseen war there with only around one-third surviving, the rest casualties of American assaults, snakes, rats and insects.
Now the unseen and undeclared No Man's Land is undergoing a revival, saluted as a Relic of National History and Culture with its Halls of Tradition displaying pictures and exhibits. The nearby Ben Duoc-Cu Chi War Memorial, where the reproduced tunnels have been built, stands as an-above ground salute to a hidden war.