Ngo Dynasty (939 - 965)

Ngo King (939-944)
Later Ngo King (950-965)

 

 
   

 

   

In 931, a patriot, Duong Dinh Nghe, took up the fight and made himself governor. After Duong Dinh Nghe died, murdered by one of his aides, the fight was led by Ngo Quyen, who in 938 clashed with a Southern Han expeditionary corps approaching by sea. The Southern Han fleet entered Vietnam via the Bach Dang estuary (mouth of the river which flows into Halong Bay) where iron-tipped stakes had been sunk into the riverbed by Ngo Quyen. At high-tide a Vietnamese flotilla attacked the enemy then, pretending to escape, lured the Southern Han boats into the estuary beyond the stakes still covered by the tide. At low-tide, the entire Vietnamese fleet counter-attacked, forcing the enemy to flee and sink, impaled on the barrage of stakes.

The Bach Dang victory in 938 put an end to the period of Chinese imperial domination. In 939 Ngo Quyen proclaimed himself king, established his capital at Co Loa (previously a capital in the 3rd century B.C.) and set up a centralized government. It was the first truly independent Vietnamese state.
Domestically, the main obstacle to the founding of a centralized power structure capable of assuming direction of the economy - management of the dyke system in particular - and of successfully resisting foreign aggression was the existence of feudal lords who each ruled an area of territory. On the death of Ngo Quyen in 944, 12 warlords divided the country among themselves and began to fight one another.


   

 

   
 

 

Dinh Dynasty (968-980)

Dinh Tien Hoang (968-979)
Dynastic title: Thai Binh (970-979) 

 

 
   

 

   

Starting from Hoa Lu in present-day Ninh Binh, Dinh Bo Linh defeated all 12 warlords, one after another, and unified the country in 967. The next year he made himself king, named the country Dai Co Viet, established his capital at Hoa Lu, reorganized the army and administration, and appointed renowned Buddhist monks as advisers. The murder of Dinh Bo Linh in 979 brought a six-year-old child to the throne. Meanwhile the Sung dynasty had taken power in China where order was restored. A Sung expeditionary corps was sent to reconquer Vietnam, which was also being attacked from the south by the Cham

   

 

   
 

 

Pre-Le Dynasty (980-1009)

Dinh Tien Hoang (968-979)
Dynastic title: Thai Binh (970-979)
 

 

 
   

 

   

Le Dai Hanh (980-1005)
Dynastic title: Thien Phuc (980-988); Hung Thong (989-993); Ung Thien (994-1005)
Le Trung Tong (1005)
Le Long Dinh (1005-1009)To deal with the danger of Sung troops, the Court and army appointed a talented general, Le Hoan. The latter defeated the Sung army on both land and water, thus saving the country (981). The next year, and expedition led by Le Hoan invaded the Kingdom of Champa and conquered its capital Indrapura (now in Quang Nam Province), removing the threat of invasion from the south for a long time to come.